Breast cancers remains the common cancers in the world and most common cancer affecting the woman around the world. Breast cancer is almost ranked first in counties like India , Australia and European subcontinent. This disease affects the woman at any age but most commonly affects the middle age females. There are various categories of breast cancer in which they are divided based on the nature of the cancer cells ( morphology) which could affect the treatment plan and protocol of management.
Common cause and risk factors of Breast cancers
- middle aged females
- High intake of fatty diet
- Family history of Brest cancer plays very important role
- Genetic factors associated with breast cancers
- Environmental factors and exposure to carcinogens
Common symptoms of Breast cancer
- swelling or painless lump in the breast
- Undue chronic pain associated with lumps
- Swelling in axilla
- Abnormal discharge or bleeding via nipples
- Change in colour or texture of the overlying skin of the breast
- Swelling in supraclavicular region
- Symptoms of spread like bone pain, headache, backache etc
Investigations and Diagnosis
Woman are frequently encouraged via various programs going around nations for self examination of Breast and these lumps are noticed incidentally by the patients themselves. It’s important to realise that after noticing any lump it should not be ignored.They should be encourage to consult with clinician/ surgeon for assessment and investigations.
Usually after identification of breast lump, patients are advised to undergo biopsy of the lump, ultrasound of the breast or mammography depending upon patients age and clinician decisions. If the diagnosis of cancer is confirmed, other investigations Magnetic resonance (MR) mammography, bone scans, genetic analysis of tissue, PET scan are advised to further plan the management of the disease.
The surgeons and cancer specialists along with patients decide best for the management of the disease depending upon the disease. Surgery remains the mainstay of the management. Various types of surgery are performed keeping the nature and extent of the disease in consideration .
Breast conservation surgery, lumpectomy, modified radical mastectomy are common surgical options. Since, removal of Breast can be pschyologically very challenging for females, various types of Breast Reconstruction surgeries are options during and after primary surgery. Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy plays major role to reduce spread of disease as well as kill the residual cancer cells. They can be used before and after operation depending upon the disease.
Recovery after surgery
The patient usually recover very well after breast cancer surgery and discharge with in 1-3 days after surgery depending upon the procedure. Follow up after any cancer surgery remains of extreme importance and patients are encouraged regularly to follow up at Breast clinics or surgeons for check up and medications.
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