Category: <span>Conditions</span>

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VAGINAL TIGHTENING

Vaginoplasty is a methodology that plans to “tighten up” a vagina that is gotten slack or free from vaginal labor or maturing. While the facts confirm that vaginal tissues can extend, surgically tightening the vaginal tissue in itself can’t ensure an elevated sexual reaction, since want, excitement, and climax are unpredictable, exceptionally close to home...

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TINNITUS

Tinnitus is the impression of clamour or ringing in the ears. A typical issue, tinnitus influences around 15 to 20 percent of individuals. Tinnitus isn’t a condition itself — it’s a symptom of a fundamental condition, for example, age-related hearing misfortune, ear injury or a inner circulatory issues with the ear! SYMPTOMS: Tinnitus involves the...

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RUPTURED EARDRUM

Ruptured ear drum is an opening or tear in the tissue that isolates your outer ear from your centre ear (eardrum). A burst eardrum can bring about hearing loss. It can likewise make your centre ear protected against diseases. SYMPTOMS: -Ear pain that may subside quickly -Mucus like, pus-filled or bloody drainage from your ear...

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PITUITARY TUMOURS

Pituitary tumours are anomalous growths that create in your pituitary organ. Some pituitary tumours result in an excessive number of the hormones that manage significant elements of your body. Some pituitary tumours can make your pituitary organ produce lower levels of hormones. Most pituitary tumours are noncancerous (kind) developments (adenomas). Adenomas stay in your pituitary...

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PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURY

Peripheral nerves send messages from your brain and spinal cord to the rest of your body, helping you do things, for example, detecting that your limbs are cold and moving your muscles with the goal that you can walk. Nerves are made of fibre which consist of axons that are protected by encompassing tissues, peripheral...

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OTITIS EXTERNA

Otitis externa is a condition that causes aggravation (redness and growing) of the outer ear canal, which is the cylinder between the external ear and eardrum. SYMPTOMS: Ear pain, which can be severe itchiness in the ear canal Discharge of liquid or pus from the ear Partial degree of temporary hearing loss CAUSES: Most instances of...

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Meniere’s Disease

Meniere’s disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can lead to dizzy spells (vertigo) and hearing loss. In most cases, Meniere’s disease affects only one ear. CAUSES: The reason for Meniere’s ailment is unknown. Symptoms of Meniere’s sickness give off an impression of being the consequence of an unusual measure of liquid (endolymph)...

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MALROTATION OF THE GUT

Malrotation is a variation from the norm where the digestive system doesn’t fits in to the right place in the abdomen. It happens during the pregnancy (around the tenth week) and creates when the digestive system neglects to loop into the best possible situation in the abdomen.  Malrotation is regularly not clear until the child...

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KIDNEY CYST

Kidney cysts are round pockets of liquid that structure on or in the kidneys. Kidney cysts can be related with serious disorder that can affect kidney’s work. However, more usually, kidney cysts are a sort called simple kidney cysts — noncancerous cysts  that once in a while cause complications. SYMPTOMS: Dull pain in your back...

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INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS

BACKGROUND Interstitial cystitis is a condition causing pain in lower abdomain , urge of increased urinatation along with pelvic pain. This pain ranges from uneasiness to serious pain. The condition causing  range of ailments is also known as painful bladder disorder. Urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine. The bladder expands until...

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HYMENOPLASTY

Hymenoplasty is the best approach to reestablish the torn hymen of the vagina through which the sign of virginity can be assumed. Either individual is an unmarried youngster who had encountered pre-marriage sex or who engaged with physical exercises like games and athletics or happened incidentally. The procedure for hymenoplasty is performed using the extras...

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Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is a condition where fluid builds up in the skull and causes the brain to swell. This condition is also called ‘water in brain’ and the build-up is often caused by an obstruction in the proper circulation of the brain fluid which lead to accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in brain. The condition requires...

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Hoarseness of voice

Hoarseness, an irregularity in the pitch of your voice, which is typical condition that is frequently knowledgeable about combination with a dry or scratchy throat. On the off chance that your voice is rough, you may have a rough, frail, or vaporous quality to your voice that prevents you from making smooth vocal sounds. CAUSES:...

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HAEMTURIA

BACKGROUND Blood in the  your urine can be disturbing and scary at times. While in numerous reasons, blood in urine (hematuria) can be warning signs of underlying serious disease. Urinary blood that is noticeable just under a magnifying instrument (tiny hematuria) is discovered when your primary care physician tests your urine. In any case, it’s...

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HEARING LOSS

Hearing loss that happens gradually with your  age (presbycusis) which is normal physiological phenomenon. Many individuals between the age of 65 and 75 have some level of hearing loss. For those older than 75 that number is around 1 in 2. Hearing loss is defined as one of three types: Conductive (involves outer or middle...

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DYSPHAGIA

Trouble gulping your food or liquids is known as dysphasia. This is frequently associated with weight loss, poor nutrition and vomiting) implies it takes additional time and exertion to move food or fluid from your mouth to your stomach. Dysphagia may likewise be related with pain. At times, gulping might be impossible. SYMPTOMS: Having pain...

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Deformities of the Chest in Childhood

Background Conditions that cause physical abnormalities of the chest are known as chest wall deformations. The most widely recognised are pectus excavatum  (sunken chest or funnel chest) and pectus carnitum (pigeon chest). Pectus excavatum highlights a chest that is depressed, while with pectus carnitum, the chest protrudes outward. Combination happens, where one side is depressed...

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COLPORRHAPHY

Colporrhaphy is the surgical fix of an imperfection in the vaginal divider, including a cystocele (when the bladder juts into the vagina) and a rectocele (when the rectum projects into the vagina). Purpose: A prolapse happens when an organ falls or sinks from its anatomical spot. The pelvic organs ordinarily have tissue (muscle, tendons and...

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COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION

A cochlear implant is an electronic gadget when placed in inner ear reestablishes hearing. This remains the solution for the individuals who have serious hearing loss from internal ear harm who are no longer aided by utilising portable amplifiers. In contrast to amplifiers, which enhance sound, a cochlear embed sidesteps harmed parts of the ear...

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BRAIN TUMOURS

A wide range of kinds of brain tumours exist. Some brain tumours are noncancerous (favourable), and some brain tumours are dangerous (harmful). Brain tumours  can start in your brain (essential brain tumours), or disease can start in different pieces of your body and spread to your brain (optional, or metastatic, brain tumours). How rapidly a...

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BRAIN HAEMORRHAGE

A brain haemorrhage alludes to seeping of the blood  into  the brain. This ailment is otherwise called a brain drain or an intracranial discharge. It is a health related crisis that requires prompt treatment. The skull encompasses the brain, and any spilling blood from a discharge can make pressure and harm the brain tissues. The...

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BLADDER CANCERS

Background Bladder cancer happens with uncontrolled growth of epithelial lining of the cells of the urinary bladder. As more cancer cells create, they can frame a tumour and, with time, spread to different pieces of the body. The bladder is an empty organ in the lower pelvis. It has adaptable, muscular dividers that can stretch...

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BILIARY ATRESIA

Biliary atresia is an uncommon infection of the liver and bile ducts that happens in newborn children. Symptoms complex arises around birth to two or three months after birth. Cells inside the liver produce fluid which is called as bile. Bile assists with processing fat. It additionally conveys squander items from the liver to the...

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BEDWETTING (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS)

Bed-wetting — additionally called evening time incontinence or nighttime enuresis — is spontaneous peeing. Soaked sheets and night wear — and a humiliated kid — are a natural scene in numerous homes. Be that as it may, don’t surrender. By and large, bed-wetting before age 7 isn’t a worry. At this age, your kid may...

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Chronic Ear Infection

Chronic Ear Infection is a condition that can be caused by allergies, sinusitis, ear injuries and bacterial infection. This can result in ruptured ear drum, hearing loss, balance function, facial inflammation or paralysis. Getting medical help quickly is necessary to maintain good hearing health.  Symptoms of Chronic Ear Infection The symptoms will differ depending upon...

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Sinus Problem ( Sinusitis)

Sinusitis is the infection of sinuses located adjacent nasal cavity in maxillary area and frontal bone of skull. The internal tissue lining the sinuses become swollen or inflamed as result of infection. The germs grow and cause an infection when the sinuses become blocked and filled with fluid.  Sinusitis commonly makes the breathing difficult and...

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Deviated Nasal Septum

Background  Septum is the thin wall between the nostrils made of cartilage and bone. When this cartilage and bone is off centre or crooked it is referred to as deviated nasal septum. A deviated septum may be present at birth, or may be caused during the growth of foetus or due to some injury to...

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Obesity and metabolic surgery

Overview: What is obesity  Obesity is a state of being excessively fat. This term is exclusively associated with a person who has crossed the phase of overweight and has gained even grossly more fat.  The condition of Obesity can be measured through the Body Mass Index (BMI), it shows a value  considering a person’s height...

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Obesity surgery and Lifestyle

Background  Obesity is considered to one of the leading non infectious pandemics in the world. The incidence of obesity and obesity related disease have significantly increased in last three decades. Obesity related disease especially hypertension, Diabetes, joint pains, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnoea and osteoarthritis of knee joints are major burden to the patients and...

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Bariatric (Obesity) Surgery

Background  Bariatric ( obesity) surgery involves surgery of the patients suffering from obesity and metabolic disorders. This surgery has evolved with advancements in laparoscopic Surgery sure to its inherited benefits in recovery of the patients especially obese where the risk and morbidity with wound infections is also high with conventional open surgery. The laparoscopic surgery...

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Bony injuries of skull (Skull fractures)

A skull fracture is a break in the cranial bone also known as skull. The skull can break or fracture if it is subject to direct or forceful impact. People with skull fracture need to be treated as soon as possible.  The extent of injury in skull fractures depends on: How deep the fracture is...

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SPINAL CORD TRAUMA

 A spinal cord injury is defined as any harm to any piece of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of spinal cord (cauda equina)  which  causes motor or sensory changes in quality of sensation and other body functions beneath the site of injury. The spinal cord injuries could be very dangerous as they...

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SPINAL DISC HERNIATION

This condition refers to an issue with a rubbery circle between the spinal bones. This condition happens when the soft centre of the  spinal disc pushes through a crack in the tougher exterior cracking. Causes: A single excessive strain or injury may cause a herniated disc. In old age, disc material degenerates normally as one...

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Spinal Stenosis

Background  Spinal Stenosis commonly known as narrowing of the spinal canal mostly occurs in lower back or neck. With the age, there are spine changes leading to degeneration of bones, disc, ligaments and muscles that together makes up the Spinal Column.  This also leads to narrowing of the spaces within your spine which can put...

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Abnormal Nipple Discharge

Background  Nipple discharge refers to any fluid that seeps out of the nipple of the breast. Nipple discharge during pregnancy or breastfeeding is normal however it happens less commonly in women who aren’t pregnant or breast feeding. It can affect both men and women and it might  of cause of concern because of underlying breast...

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Anal fistula ( Fistula in ano)

Background  Anal fistula is usually described as tunnel  (tract), which connects an infected gland (abscess) inside the anus to an opening on the skin. The skin glands present around anal areas might get blocked which leads to infection. Such infection leads to abscess and most of them turn into fistula.  The symptoms of this condition...

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Abnormal vaginal discharge

Background  Vaginal discharge is a natural part of a female body functioning. It keeps the female reproductive system safe and helps in preventing the vagina from catching an infection. Usually, the fluid (vaginal discharge) is produced inside vagina and cervix, it plays the role a of a cleaner for vagina and takes away the bacterias...

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Colonic Diverticulosis

Overview: Diverticulosis is a condition that arises when small pockets, known as diverticula formed in the lining of the digestive track. It occurs when the weak spots of the intestine walls faces the pressure over the long time. These bulges or pockets (diverticula) can vary in size, from small to relatively large. Usually, this condition...

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Lymphedema

Background  Lymphedema refers to the condition when either one or both of your arms or legs are swollen due any damage or removal of your lymph nodes. It happens usually due to the side effect of cancer treatment which blocks the lymphatic system. In result the fluid builds up to a bulge like structure because...

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Pilonidal Sinus

Background  Pilonidal sinus refers to the condition when small opening which is present in the skin, usually in gluteal cleft (in between the buttocks) to form the tract which is called as sinus. This sinus  will eventually fill with fluid or pus and form a cyst/ abscess (a sac of fluid) These sinus can discharge...

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Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

Background  Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is the circulatory disease or disorder which affects the smaller and medium sized vessels of the body. In this condition, the arteries become narrowed and makes the blood flow difficult in the affected area of the body. Usually the legs get affected the most by this problem because they stop...

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Short Bowel Syndrome

Short bowel syndrome (SBS) also known as short gut syndrome, is a malabsorption problem in which the body becomes unable to absorb sufficient nutrients & fluids. This happens due to improper working of the small intestine. This problem is commonly seen in people whose small intestine or large intestine have been removed surgically for some...

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Deformities of the Chest in Childhood

Background  Conditions that cause physical abnormalities of the chest are known as chest wall deformations. The most widely recognised are pectus excavatum  (sunken chest or funnel chest) and pectus carnitum (pigeon chest). Pectus excavatum highlights a chest that is depressed, while with pectus carnitum, the chest protrudes outward. Combination happens, where one side is depressed...

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Diaphragmatic Hernia

Background  Hernias are abnormal profusion of the internal contents of abdominal ( visceral cavity)  from the muscular defect in the body. Diaphragmatic Hernia is there is abnormal profusion of abdominal organs in to the chest cavity. One of the important tasks of dome shaped diaphragm is to separate internal working of chest and abdominal cavities....

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Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Background  Fibrocystic breast disease is a benign( non cancerous) condition of the breast disease in which patients suffers from abnormal pain and  vague lump in the breast. It’s a non-cancerous condition and is not harmful or dangerous but can be bothersome for some women. Many women with fibrocystic breast will not have any symptom.  Breast...

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Haemorrhoids

Background Haemorrhoids are also most commonly known piles. These are swollen veins in your anus or lower rectum. They act like cushions in the lowers part of rectum and help in maintaining the continence of the the process of defecation. Haemorrhoids can develop internally or externally i.e. inside the rectum or the skin around the...

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Thoracic Surgery

Overview: What is Thoracic Surgery? Thoracic surgery is a medical surgery that deals with the diagnosis and treatment, mostly surgical treatment of chest organs, such as, lungs, esophagus, heart, trachea, and other organs present inside the chest. This surgical treatment is among the most complex process, but with technological advancement, it has become quite safe...

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Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery ( VATS)

Background  Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery as the name suggests involves surgery of the thorax by placing the specialised instruments in the thorax and performing surgery on the monitor under complete vision. VATS is an extended spectrum of minimal access surgery used to treat lung and chest conditions. With the advancements of techniques and improvisation of...

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Appendicitis

Background  Appendix is a small finger shaped pouch shaped organ  on the right side of the  abdomen connected to the large intestine(cecal part of colon). Appendicitis happen when your appendix becomes inflamed. It’s considered as surgical emergency and is dealt accordingly. Appendicitis can occur in any age group but most commonly happens in younger population. ...

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Cleft Lip & Palate

Cleft lip & palate is a condition when a baby is born with an opening in the upper lip or the roof of the mouth (palate).  The condition of cleft lip and palate might differ from baby to baby. He or she might have any of the following: Only a cleft lip Only a cleft...

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Cystic Hygroma

What are cystic hygroma? Cystic hygroma is a rare type of abnormal cyst growth in a baby, usually appear on neck. These cysts are filled with fluid which is caused by the blockage in the lymphatic system. This role of the lymphatic system is to  carry cells, fluid and protein to circulate between tissues and...

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Undescended Testis

Background  An undescended testis is a condition which arises when the testis hasn’t moved into the scrotum (a bag behind the penis) during the time of foetal development. Medically, this condition is known as cryptorchidism.  This condition is not  rare to find at child birth and the total number of cases with  one undescended testis...

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FETAL SURGERY

Fetal medical procedure refers to operations performed on babies still in the belly. These sorts of medical procedure incorporate a wide scope of various techniques and are regularly used to treat a variety of birth defects. Purpose: Fetal Surgery medical procedure is performed on babies while as yet developing  in the mother’s womb which are...

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Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is a condition where fluid builds up in the skull and causes the brain to swell. This condition is also called ‘water in brain’ and the build-up is often caused by an obstruction in the proper circulation of the brain fluid which lead to accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in brain.  The condition requires...

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Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis ( HPS)

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is blockage of the passage of the stomach due to thickening (hypertrophy) of the muscle at the intersection between the stomach and the intestines. Causes: Pyloric stenosis is viewed as a multifactorial trait. Multifactorial inheritance implies that numerous components are engaged with causing a birth deformity. The variables are typically both hereditary...

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HYPOSPADIAS

                               Background  Hypospadias is a generally uncommon intrinsic condition where the opening of the penis is on the underside of the organ. This condition is increasingly basic in newborn children with a family ancestry of hypospadias. The penis may bend down...

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INTESTINAL ATRESIA

Intestinal atresia is a wide term used to portray a total or blockage in the intestine in the newborn or early childhood age. Malformation can be narrowing, absence or malrotation of a portion of intestine. Defects can either occur in the small or the large intestine. CAUSES: Specialists accept that intestinal atresia and stenosis are...

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MICROTIA

                  Background  Microtia is an inborn disfigurement where the pinna (outer ear) is immature. A totally lacking pinna is referred as anotia. Since microtia and anotia have a similar beginning, it very well may be referred to as microtia-anotia. Microtia can be one-sided (one side in particular)...

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NEO NATAL SURGERY

Neonatal surgical procedures is attached sub-strength of pediatric surgical division that comprises of the surgical care of babies, particularly sick or premature babies. Purpose: Neonatal surgery is a treatment option meant to correct a variety of birth defects and other conditions. It is regularly intended to treat conditions that can’t be analysed as well as...

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FACE LIFT

A face lift (rhytidectomy) is a corrective surgery done on face to give more youthful appearance to the face. This technique can lessen the drooping or creases of skin on the cheeks and facial structure and different changes happening on face which happen with age.  During a cosmetic touch up, a fold of skin on...

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Breast Upliftment ( Mastopexy)

Mastopexy is surgical procedure, normally known as breast upliftment  surgery is procedure to remove extra and loose skin free from the breasts, and to lift, tighten and reshape them, to make them look increasingly youthful. Indications of Breast upliftment Surgery Breasts normally hang with age, during and after pregnancy and breastfeeding. This can also happen...

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ABDOMINOPLASTY

             Abdominoplasty or “tummy tuck” is a restorative surgical procedure system used to make the abdomen more slender and all the more firm. This surgical procedure includes the removal of excess skin and fat from the centre and lower abdomen so as to tighten the muscle fascia of abdominal wall....

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Breast Augmentation ( Enlargement) surgery

Breast augmentation also popularly called Breast enlargement surgery or mammoplasty — is surgical procedure to expand the  breast size. It includes putting breast implants under breast tissue or chest muscles. For woman, breast enlargement is an approach to feel more pschyologically confident about their physical appearance.  Indications of Breast Augmentation surgery To enhance the physical...

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Chin Enhancement Surgery

What is chin enhancement surgery? Chin enhancement surgery also called as Chin augmentation surgery or genioplasty is performed to enhance the chin and define facial features. In this procedure, shape & size of the chin are augmented by placing an implant around the chin bone. The result of the process looks natural and helps in boosting...

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HAND SURGERY

Hand surgery is a specialised field of plastic and reconstructive surgery which covers wide range of the procedures performed at the hand. Plastic surgeons perform hand surgery to reestablish and restore hand and fingers work. But the hand surgeons also try to make the hand look as real as possible especially after major hand injuries....

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Nose Job

                                  Background  Rhinoplasty, ordinarily known as a nose job, is a plastic surgery method for remodelling and correcting any deformities of the nose. There are two sorts of plastic surgery utilised – reconstructive surgery that reestablishes the structure and elements...

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PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURY

Peripheral nerves send messages from your brain and spinal cord to the rest of your body, helping you do things, for example, detecting that your limbs are cold and moving your muscles with the goal that you can walk. Nerves are made of fibre which consist of axons that are protected by encompassing tissues, peripheral...

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Care after heart transplant surgery

Background  Heart transplant surgery is a major surgical procedure and could be life saviour in patients who are dependent on regular medications for chronic  heart problems from long time. The patients who choose to undergo heart    transplant surgery also need to follow the transplant related precautions to have successful outcomes  of heart  transplant surgery....

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Care after kidney transplant surgery

Background  Kidney transplant surgery is a major surgical procedure and could be life saviour in patients who are dependent on dialysis, regular medications and kidney related problems from long time. The patients who choose to undergo kidney transplant surgery also need to follow the transplant related precautions to have successful outcomes  of kidney transplant surgery....

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Care after Liver transplant surgery

Background  Liver transplant surgery is a major surgical procedure and could be life saviour in patients who are dependent on regular medications for chronic liver problem and liver  related problems from long time. The patients who choose to undergo liver transplant surgery also need to follow the transplant related precautions to have successful outcomes  of...

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Care after Lung transplant surgery

Background  Lung transplant surgery is a major surgical procedure and could be life saviour in patients who are dependent on regular medications for chronic  lung problems from long time. The patients who choose to undergo  lung  transplant surgery also need to follow the transplant related precautions to have successful outcomes  of lung transplant surgery. The...

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Heart Transplant

Background  A heart transplant is a surgical replacement of a person’s diseased heart with a healthy donor’s heart. To remove a heart from the donor the healthcare providers must declare the donor brain dead. The major constraint with heart transplant surgeries is availability of the deceased donors ( brain dead donors). As it also considered...

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Kidney ( Renal) Transplant surgery

Background  Kidney Transplant is an organ transplant of a Kidney into a patient with an end stage kidney disease. Kidneys are bean shaped organ located just below the rib cage on each side of the spine. Their main function is to filter and remove waste and fluid from the blood by producing urine. A Kidney...

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Liver Transplant

Liver Transplant surgery involves replacement  of patients diseased liver with a whole or partial healthy liver from another person. It is the second most commonly transplanted major organ after kidney. Usually there are two types of liver donor Deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) survey where organ is retrieved from brain dead individual  and Living Donor...

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Lung Transplant

Background  A Lung Transplant is a surgery that replaces diseased or failing lung with a healthy donor lung. For people with severe lung disease, a transplant can bring back easier breathing and provide years of life. The survival rate for lung transplant patients has improved over the years. Who may need a Lung Transplant? People...

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Kidney transplant surgery- Things to know before surgery

Background  Kidney transplant surgery is one of the common transplant surgery performed among all the transplant surgeries. All kinds of transplant surgery is performed under pre set protocol of diagnosis, investigations , transplants registration, surgery and post operative protocols. It is absolutely important to know the whether the transplant surgery will rightly benefit the patients...

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Liver transplant surgery- Things to know before surgery

Background  Liver transplant surgery is second most common transplant surgery performed among all the transplant surgeries. All kinds of transplant surgery is performed under pre set protocol of diagnosis, investigations , transplants registration, surgery and post operative protocols. It is absolutely important to know the whether the transplant surgery will rightly benefit the patients before...

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Common bile duct stones ( Choledocholithiasis)

Background  Common bile duct stones are very common surgical ailment seen in practice as the incidence of the gallbladder stone disease is high across globe. They usually occur secondary to slippage of the gallbladder stones in to the common bile duct which is also considered as complication of gallbladder stone disease. In Asian population, these...

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Gallbladder polyps

Background  Gallbladder polyps or polypoidal lesion of the gallbladder is disease which primarily affects your gallbladder with tiny lesions occasions from the inner lining of the gallbladder. These lesions progressively increase in size to form polyps ( small lump inside the organ which grows from the inner lining of the organ). These polyps does not...

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Gall Bladder stone disease

Background  Gall bladder stone disease also know as “ cholelithiasis” is one the most general surgical disease which a surgeon encounters in his/ her practice across all the countries. Though the incidence may vary according to environmental, dietary and body structure  of the individuals.  This disease is often ignored by most of the patients and...

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Gall bladder cancer – All you need to know ?

Gall bladder is pear shaped organ located at inferior margin of the liver. It usually acts as small reservoir of storage of bile which is produced by liver. The most common problem associated with gallbladder is gallbladder stones which is very common surgical disease across all countries. Gallbladder cancer usually happens with long standing gallbladder...

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Gastric polyps (Polyps in the stomach ) and its surgery !

Background  Gastric polyps are one of the commons ailment encountered during routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. They are more commonly feared as cancerous lesions which becomes matter of concern to clinician as well as the patients. As they are incidentally detected most of these gastric polyps are asymptomatic. Most of these polyps are benign (non cancerous)...

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Groin Hernias

Background  Hernias are abnormal profusion of the internal contents of abdominal ( visceral cavity)  from the muscular defect in the body. There are various types of hernias which are divided basically on the site of the hernia in the body and the organ/ contents involved in the hernia.  The hernia occurring in the groin region...

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Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure which involves removal of entire uterus of the women. Many women commonly choose hysterectomy as an option to resolve their fibroid conditions after failed medical treatment After hysterectomy menstrual bleeding stops, pelvic pressure stops and new fibroids cannot grow. A woman can no longer become pregnant after hysterectomy. Conditions Under...

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Intestinal tumours

Background  Intestinal tumours are not so common tumours of the abdomen though they are observed more frequently in clinical practice. Small intestine contains mainly three parts duodenum, jejunum and ileum. There are variations in morphology of the tumours. They can arise from lining of the intestine , cells of the intestinal layer as well as...

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Liver Abscess

Background  Abscess is collection of pus mixed with fluid and inflammatory debris in body or any tissue.  When this abscess occurs in liver parenchyma  they are termed as liver abscess. Liver abscess very common in Indian subcontinent especially in northern part of India. The incidence of abscess is also common in other areas of world...

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Oesophageal cancers

Background  Oesophageal cancers also know as cancers of food pipe are considered to one of the dreaded cancers after pancreatic cancers. The rate of the cancer is variable across different countries and is related to multiple risk factors. These cancers are more common in male population and I also closely to various substance abuse, smoking...

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Cancers of pancreas

Background  Pancreatic cancers are considered to be the most dreadful cancers of the abdominal organs. Pancreas organ lies in the retroperitoneal part of the body and mainly deals with the endocrine function of the body. It serves as important hormonal regulator by controlling of blood sugar in the body as well as  secretion of various...

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Rectal cancers

Background  Rectal and colon cancers are  rated among the top five cancers in incidence around the world with variable incidences in various nations. The incidence is very high in western countries and far east countries and is frequently observed in Indian subcontinent. Rectal cancers among the abdominal cancers generally have very good prognosis with advancements...

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Rectal prolapse

Background  Rectal prolapse is a condition where the lower part of the rectum comes out of the anal canal during straining on defecation. This condition can affect young individuals but more commonly presently at old age. This could be very debilitating in cases of large rectal prolapse. In older age females have higher tendency to...

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Gastro oesophageal Reflux disease

Background  Gastro oesophageal reflux disease also commonly known as reflux disease is associated in young adults to old age. It’s can be constantly debilitating disease as symptoms persists whole day and they can increase as the day progresses and when patients lie down. Medical management has very successfully able to control the symptoms but this...

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Stomach cancer

Background  Stomach is the major digestive organ of the body where the food we eat is churned, digested and stored for small period of time in our stomach. Stomach cancer arises from the internal lining of our stomach. There is common myth associated with stomach problems  as many people do understand stomach as the whole...

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Tuberculosis (TB) – Surgeons perspective!

Introduction  Tuberculosis ( Koch’s Disease) also commonly known as TB is on of the leading cause of death around the world. This age old disease is till widely prevalent with incidence following down by 1.7 to 2 % per year. The infection generally spreads with air droplet infection through saliva and sputum via the transfer...

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Varicose Veins

Background  Varicose Veins also called as Varicoses or Varicosities is a condition when the  veins in any part of the body become enlarged, dilated and overfilled with blood. They have bluish purple or red colour and appear swollen and raised.  This condition is very common among women after pregnancy and professionals who stand for long...

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Ventral hernias

Background Hernias are abnormal profusion of the internal contents of abdominal ( visceral cavity)  from the muscular defect in the body. There are various types of hernias which are divided basically on the site of the hernia in the body and the organ/ contents involved in the hernia.  The hernia occurring in the abdominal wall...

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Appendix removal surgery

Background  Appendix removal surgery as the name suggests involves surgery of the  appendix either by conventional open surgery or minimal access surgery also called as laparoscopic surgery . Appendix is tubular structure present at the Cecal part of large intestine.  The laparoscopic surgery is performed by placing the specialised instruments in the abdomain and performing...

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