Category: <span>General and Gastrointestinal surgery</span>

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Abnormal Nipple Discharge

Background  Nipple discharge refers to any fluid that seeps out of the nipple of the breast. Nipple discharge during pregnancy or breastfeeding is normal however it happens less commonly in women who aren’t pregnant or breast feeding. It can affect both men and women and it might  of cause of concern because of underlying breast...

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Anal fistula ( Fistula in ano)

Background  Anal fistula is usually described as tunnel  (tract), which connects an infected gland (abscess) inside the anus to an opening on the skin. The skin glands present around anal areas might get blocked which leads to infection. Such infection leads to abscess and most of them turn into fistula.  The symptoms of this condition...

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Abnormal vaginal discharge

Background  Vaginal discharge is a natural part of a female body functioning. It keeps the female reproductive system safe and helps in preventing the vagina from catching an infection. Usually, the fluid (vaginal discharge) is produced inside vagina and cervix, it plays the role a of a cleaner for vagina and takes away the bacterias...

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Colonic Diverticulosis

Overview: Diverticulosis is a condition that arises when small pockets, known as diverticula formed in the lining of the digestive track. It occurs when the weak spots of the intestine walls faces the pressure over the long time. These bulges or pockets (diverticula) can vary in size, from small to relatively large. Usually, this condition...

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Lymphedema

Background  Lymphedema refers to the condition when either one or both of your arms or legs are swollen due any damage or removal of your lymph nodes. It happens usually due to the side effect of cancer treatment which blocks the lymphatic system. In result the fluid builds up to a bulge like structure because...

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Pilonidal Sinus

Background  Pilonidal sinus refers to the condition when small opening which is present in the skin, usually in gluteal cleft (in between the buttocks) to form the tract which is called as sinus. This sinus  will eventually fill with fluid or pus and form a cyst/ abscess (a sac of fluid) These sinus can discharge...

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Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

Background  Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is the circulatory disease or disorder which affects the smaller and medium sized vessels of the body. In this condition, the arteries become narrowed and makes the blood flow difficult in the affected area of the body. Usually the legs get affected the most by this problem because they stop...

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Short Bowel Syndrome

Short bowel syndrome (SBS) also known as short gut syndrome, is a malabsorption problem in which the body becomes unable to absorb sufficient nutrients & fluids. This happens due to improper working of the small intestine. This problem is commonly seen in people whose small intestine or large intestine have been removed surgically for some...

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Deformities of the Chest in Childhood

Background  Conditions that cause physical abnormalities of the chest are known as chest wall deformations. The most widely recognised are pectus excavatum  (sunken chest or funnel chest) and pectus carnitum (pigeon chest). Pectus excavatum highlights a chest that is depressed, while with pectus carnitum, the chest protrudes outward. Combination happens, where one side is depressed...

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Diaphragmatic Hernia

Background  Hernias are abnormal profusion of the internal contents of abdominal ( visceral cavity)  from the muscular defect in the body. Diaphragmatic Hernia is there is abnormal profusion of abdominal organs in to the chest cavity. One of the important tasks of dome shaped diaphragm is to separate internal working of chest and abdominal cavities....

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Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Background  Fibrocystic breast disease is a benign( non cancerous) condition of the breast disease in which patients suffers from abnormal pain and  vague lump in the breast. It’s a non-cancerous condition and is not harmful or dangerous but can be bothersome for some women. Many women with fibrocystic breast will not have any symptom.  Breast...

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Haemorrhoids

Background Haemorrhoids are also most commonly known piles. These are swollen veins in your anus or lower rectum. They act like cushions in the lowers part of rectum and help in maintaining the continence of the the process of defecation. Haemorrhoids can develop internally or externally i.e. inside the rectum or the skin around the...

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Thoracic Surgery

Overview: What is Thoracic Surgery? Thoracic surgery is a medical surgery that deals with the diagnosis and treatment, mostly surgical treatment of chest organs, such as, lungs, esophagus, heart, trachea, and other organs present inside the chest. This surgical treatment is among the most complex process, but with technological advancement, it has become quite safe...

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Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery ( VATS)

Background  Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery as the name suggests involves surgery of the thorax by placing the specialised instruments in the thorax and performing surgery on the monitor under complete vision. VATS is an extended spectrum of minimal access surgery used to treat lung and chest conditions. With the advancements of techniques and improvisation of...

Varicose Veins
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Varicose Veins

Background  Varicose Veins also called as Varicoses or Varicosities is a condition when the  veins in any part of the body become enlarged, dilated and overfilled with blood. They have bluish purple or red colour and appear swollen and raised.  This condition is very common among women after pregnancy and professionals who stand for long...

Stomach cancer
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Stomach cancer

Background  Stomach is the major digestive organ of the body where the food we eat is churned, digested and stored for small period of time in our stomach. Stomach cancer arises from the internal lining of our stomach. There is common myth associated with stomach problems  as many people do understand stomach as the whole...

Rectal cancers
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Rectal cancers

Background  Rectal and colon cancers are  rated among the top five cancers in incidence around the world with variable incidences in various nations. The incidence is very high in western countries and far east countries and is frequently observed in Indian subcontinent. Rectal cancers among the abdominal cancers generally have very good prognosis with advancements...

Cancers of pancreas
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Cancers of pancreas

Background  Pancreatic cancers are considered to be the most dreadful cancers of the abdominal organs. Pancreas organ lies in the retroperitoneal part of the body and mainly deals with the endocrine function of the body. It serves as important hormonal regulator by controlling of blood sugar in the body as well as  secretion of various...

Liver cancers ( Hepatocellular carcinoma)
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Liver cancers ( Hepatocellular carcinoma)

Background  Liver cancers are on the most dreaded sequels of chronic viral liver infections like Hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The most common form of liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma which happens with uncontrolled regeneration of of its own primary cells of liver called hepatocytes.  The other common liver cancer is spread from other organs...

Liver Abscess
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Liver Abscess

Background  Abscess is collection of pus mixed with fluid and inflammatory debris in body or any tissue.  When this abscess occurs in liver parenchyma  they are termed as liver abscess. Liver abscess very common in Indian subcontinent especially in northern part of India. The incidence of abscess is also common in other areas of world...

Intestinal tumours
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Intestinal tumours

Background  Intestinal tumours are not so common tumours of the abdomen though they are observed more frequently in clinical practice. Small intestine contains mainly three parts duodenum, jejunum and ileum. There are variations in morphology of the tumours. They can arise from lining of the intestine , cells of the intestinal layer as well as...

Intestinal obstruction
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Intestinal obstruction

Introduction  Intestinal obstruction also termed commonly as “ blockage of intestine” to describe the patients is very commonly encountered in emergency settings. These patients are categorised under acute abdominal pain in surgical emergencies. This disease is  commonly seen across all ages and genders in routine emergencies. There are multiple causes of intestinal obstruction and are...

Gall bladder cancer
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Gall bladder cancer

Gall bladder cancer – All you need to know ? Gallbladder is pear shaped organ located at inferior margin of the liver. It usually acts as small reservoir of storage of bile which is produced by liver. The most common problem associated with gallbladder is gallbladder stones which is very common surgical disease across all...

Fibroadenoma Surgery
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Fibroadenoma Surgery

Fibroadenoma of breast  Background  Fibroadenoma of the breast is one of the most common lumps of the breast see in younger and middle age group females. This breast is related to hormonal changes in females they undergo during the reproductive age. Fibroadenoma are characteristized by soft firm rubbery lump which movers freely under the skin....

Colon Cancers
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Colon Cancers

Colon Cancers- All you need to know? Background  Colon cancers is rated among the top five cancers in incidence around the world with variable incidences in various nations. The incidence is very high in western countries and far eat countries and it is frequently observed in Indian subcontinent. Colon cancers among the abdominal cancers generally...

Surgery in Diabetic patients
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Surgery in Diabetic patients

Background  Patients with diabetes have additional risk when they are  undergo any kind of surgical procedure. Also, this risk increases if you have diabetes for an extended period of time  with uncontrolled blood sugar levels. Diabetics is very commonly associated problems in patients undergoing any kind of surgery. Appropriate control of diabetics is almost essential...

Breast Biopsy for Breast lumps
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Breast Biopsy for Breast lumps

A breast biopsy is procedure to obtain breast tissue for research centre testing. This is very basic and essential test to obtain the samples from the lumps or any suspicious swelling in the breast to rule out cancer and other breast disease. Early diagnosis is very essential to prevent various complications of breast disease.  It...