Gall bladder removal ( GB) surgery as the name suggests involves surgery of the gall bladder either by conventional open surgery or minimal access surgery also called as laparoscopic surgery . Gallbladder is the small pear shaped organ which is present in the liver bed. It stores the bile juices and release bile after stimulation of hormones after meals. The laparoscopic surgery is performed by placing the specialised instruments in the abdomain and performing surgery on the monitor under complete vision.
Gall bladder surgeries are most commonly performed routinely surgeries. With the advancements of techniques and improvisation of surgical skills the surgical results of gallbladder surgeries have become excellent with time and patients can be discharge on the same day.
The types of gallbladder surgery performed either via open conventional surgery or laparoscopic surgery are laparoscopic cholecystectomy ( removal of GB) , open cholecystectomy ( in case facilities or expertise not available or gallbladder suspicious of cancers) , radical cholecystectomy ( in cases of cancers of gallbladder) , percutaneous cholecystectomy ( placement of pigtail or drainage of pus or bile from GB)
Indications of Gallbladder surgery
- Gallbladder stones
- Gallbladder polyps
- Acalculous cholecystitis
- Empyema of the gallbladder (pus in the GB)
- Acute cholecystitis ( infection of GB)
- Mucocele of GB ( mucous present in GB)
- Cancer of the gallbladder
Once you are planned for surgery the surgeon will explain all the details , it’s risk involved , informed consent and recovery protocols after the surgery they are planning to perform. Usually the length of the procedure will depend upon the extent of the surgery.
- Surgery is performed under General anaesthesia
- Particular position of the patients according to the area of the surgery is given to the patient (commonly done in supine position)
- Technically incision is given upon extent of surgery and preference of surgery
- In laparoscopic surgery, Small hole are made to enter the abdomain using video scope to assess the complete abdominal cavity and area of the disease.
- Mobilisation of the Callot’s triangle and identification of the cystic duct and artery is commonly done.
- Surgery is performed using specialised instruments, energy sources , clips to remove the gall bladder.
- Gallbladder is removed through the small cut made of instruments and abdominal drain if required is placed.
Recovery after surgery
- The patient is kept in post operative care unit for initial observation and management. Bleeding, infection and leaks are major risks involve after these surgeries.
- Diet is usually started once your bowel function starts returning after surgery usually within some hours after surgery
- Early mobilisation of the patient is recommended.
- Routine blood check up after surgery is usually not required in case of gallbladder surgery
- The patients are usually discharge on the same day or within 1-2 days.
Advantages of Laparoscopic gall bladder surgery
- Big incision is avoided which is used in conventional surgery which causes significant discomfort and pain.
- Early recovery
- Early healing of the wound
- Shorter stay of hospital
- Early mobilisation and early return to work
- Scar is minimal
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