The immune system consists of some infection- fighting cells that are known as lymphocytes. These lymphocytes form the pool of white blood cells in the body. Lymphoma is the disease arising from white blood cells which rapidly divide uncontrollably to form a mass arising from the lymphatic system which is called as lymphoma. Since these cells are present in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen and many other parts of the body, so this can affect any portion of the lymphatic system.
There are more than 70 different types of cancer, which falls under two main categories.
There are broadly two types of Lymphoma:
- Hodgkin Lymphoma
- Non- Hodgkin Lymphoma
These are the two broad types of Lymphoma which are classified in to many other sub types. The main difference between Hodgkin & non- Hodgkin lymphoma is involvement of different types of lymphoid cells.
Symptoms of Lymphoma are usually not acknowledgeable in the initial stage or they may be mistaken for other diseases, which in result cause the delay in treatment. This is why, it is advisable to visit a doctor once after you witness any of the symptoms.
- Swollen Glands (Lymph Nodes), Usually in the Neck, Armpit, Or Groin
- Chronic cough and chest pain
- Abdominal pain or lump in the abdomen
- Night Sweats
- Ongoing low grade fever
- Shortness of Breath
- Weight Loss
Diagnosis and investigations
Initially after noticing these symptoms it’s advised to meet your clinician/ surgeon. The investigation . After clinical assessment the clinician usage advice you to undergo aspiration needle biopsy of the swelling , ultrasonography or contrast enhanced computerised tomography ( CECT ) of the system involved. Further investigations are usually done depending upon the nature of symptoms as well as to assess the extortion disease.
Treatment of lymphoma
Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the subsequent treatment depends upon the stage and nature of lymphoma. Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, and Immunotherapy are commonly used treatment. Chemotherapy have good results in treatment of this disease as the tumour usually melts down after it.
Role of surgery in lymphoma
Surgery can be beneficial in cases of diagnostic treatment like excision biopsy or minimal invasive biopsy procedures done for confirmation of diagnosis and to rule out other cancers or tuberculosis whenever suggested. In case of large lymphoma not responding to medical management and tumours causing local complications surgery can be done by routine conventional open surgery or minimal access depending upon the size and site of the tumour to alleviate the symptoms and disease.
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