PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a gynaecological condition in which the ovaries get enlarged with multiple small cysts on the edges(as the name suggests polycystic itself means ‘many cysts’). It is due to disturbed hormonal levels of a woman which leads to abnormal menstrual cycle,inability to get pregnancy, physical health, etc. 

Causes of polycystic ovary syndrome

Obesity, hormonal imbalance and metabolic disease like diabetes, intake of certain medications  like steroids are major risk factors. However, there are certain theories related to polycystic ovaries 

  • Genetics

Researchers have noted that PCOS comes from the genes. For suppose, if your mother has it, you are more likely to have it too and it not necessarily can pass from your maternal side, it can come even from your paternal side.

  • Insulin resistance.   Secondary to obesity , diabetes and metabolic syndrome. 
  • High levels of androgens

Every female body produces a small amount of androgens, but if our body produces more than normal amount of it, then it may become an alarming sign. These hormones don’t allow the ovaries to release during which correlates with difficulty in attains pregnancy. 

Symptoms of PCOS

The symptoms of PCOS are easily recognisable but woman’s do ignore there early symptoms. As the symptoms in many females can vary, which which can be missed possibly and correlated with other disease.  Some of the most common symptom includes: 

  • An irregular menstrual cycle
  • Acne on the face, chest, and back 
  • Darkening of the skin
  • Deeper voice
  • Decrease in breast size 
  • Depression or mood swings 
  • Difficulty breathing while asleep 
  • Excessive hair growth on the face, chin, or body
  • Excess weight gain
  • Headache
  • Heavy bleeding
  • Infertility
  • Male-pattern baldness 
  • Multiple miscarriages
  • Pelvic pain

Some common health problems caused by PCOS: 

  • Diabetes
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Endometrial cancer
  • High blood pressure
  • Infertility
  • Metabolic syndrome 
  • Unhealthy cholesterol
  • Sleep apnea

Treatment

Both medical and surgical treatment is available for PCOS, one should consult a doctor first, before undergoing for the treatment. Medical management includes hormonal therapy . Laparoscopic ovarian drilling is common procedure performed for polycystic ovaries to destroy the abnormal cyst  and ovarian tissue using lasers and heat energy to induce ovulation in woman.  Emergency surgery may be required in cases of large cysts leading to torsion of ovary which are well managed with laparoscopic surgery. 

Lifestyle management including reduction of weight, health diet, stress management and regular exercises will improve the symptoms. Obesity in child bearing ages can impact the fertility for longer time and weight reduction surgeries can bring best solutions to obesity and metabolic syndrome induced polycystic ovaries. 

To consult with best team of general, minimal access and gynaecologist available at  The Surgeons House (SHL) in different global locations, please click this link for more details. 

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