Testicular cancers (Cancer of Testis)

Background 

Testicular cancers is a type of cancer that begin in the male reproductive gland known as testicle or testis. It is present inside the scrotum, which is responsible for producing sperm for reproduction and other sex hormones. 

This type of cancer is found in very young or old males  and as it remains superficial organ it can be diagnosed or recognised earlier earlier by the patients or clinician. Although people in the middle age are highly diagnosed with this disease than any other. 

Signs & Symptoms of Cancer in Testis:

Men usually avoid the sign of testicular cancer and some even doesn’t notice any symptoms in the initial stage, but if you face any of the below problem, you should visit a urologist soon. The symptoms include: 

  • Dull aching pain in the abdomen or groin
  • Discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum
  • Swelling or lump in either testicle
  • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts
  • Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • Minor pain in back 
  • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum

Causes of Testicular Cancer: 

The reason behind testicular cancer is not crystal clear in many cases, but it begins in the germ cells, the reason for these cells to turn cancerous is unknown, although men with below factors are at higher risk to have it, includes: 

  • A family history of testicle cancer. 
  • Men with undescended testes or cryptorchidism. 

Since the exact reason is unknown, this is why it may become difficult to avoid the risk factor of this cancer. But anyone who matches with the above statement needs to examine themselves so, that they can minimise the risk or could get the treatment on time.

Diagnosis and treatment 

Once you notice this symptoms it’s important to visit your clinician or surgeons. After examination, clinician may usually recommend ultrasonography of the scrotum or Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) of the scrotum and pelvis to confirm the diagnosis of cancer. Tumour markers are adjunct to confirm the diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is confirmed the treatment plan is decided by cancer specialists and surgeon. 

Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the surgical procedure of choice in which the entire spermatic cord and testifies are removed. Once the source of cancer cells are removed then treatment is mainly focused to control the spread of the cancer cells by chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Recovery after surgery 

The hospital stay after surgery is usually1-2 days and patients are discharged with medications and a scrotal support to prevent any collection in the wound. The patient are advised chemotherapy and radiotherapy according to the stage of the disease. 

The prognosis is usually good in early stages after treatment but the pschyological concerns with the males as test is removal is permanent. Appropriate counselling to these patients and support is required. 

To consult with best team of general surgeons and urologist surgeons available at  The Surgeons House (SHL) in different global locations, please click this link for more details. 

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