INFERTILITY IN MALE PATIENTS

INFERTILITY IN MALE PATIENTS

   Male infertility refers to a male’s inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female.

CAUSES OF MALE INFERTILITY:

MEDICAL CAUSES:

-Varicocele

-Infection

-Ejaculation issues

-Antibodies that attack sperm

-Tumours

– Undescended testicles

– Hormone imbalances

-Defects of tubules that transport sperm

-Chromosome defects

-Problems with sexual intercourse

-Certain medications

– Prior surgeries

LIFESTYLE CAUSES:

-Drug use

-Alcohol use

– Tobacco smoking

-Emotional stress

-Depression 

– Weight

SYMPTOMS:

-Problems with sexual function — for example, difficulty with ejaculation or small volumes of fluid ejaculated, reduced sexual desire, or difficulty maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction)

-Pain, swelling or a lump in the testicle area

-Recurrent respiratory infections

-Inability to smell

-Abnormal breast growth (gynecomastia)

-Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality

-A lower than normal sperm count (fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or a total sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculate)

-Pain, discomfort, a lump or swelling in the testicle area

-A history of testicle, prostate or sexual problems

-A groin, testicle, penis or scrotum surgery

HOW IT IS DIAGNOSED?

-Physical examination

-Urinalysis

-Semen evaluation 

-Hormonal tests

-Scrotal ultrasound

-Hormone testing

-Post-ejaculation urinalysis

-Genetic tests

-Testicular biopsy

 -Specialised sperm functions tests

TREATMENT:

SURGERY: For instance, a varicocele can frequently be surgically revised or an obstructed vas deferens fixed. Earlier vasectomies can be reversed. In situations where no sperm are available in the discharge, sperm can regularly be recovered straightforwardly from the testicles or epididymis utilising sperm-retrieval procedure.

TREATING INFECTIONS:  Antibiotics treatment may fix an infection of the reproductive tract, yet doesn’t generally reestablish fertility.

TREATMENT FOR SEXUAL INTERCOURSE PROBLEM: Medications or counselling can help improve fertility in conditions such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

HORMONE TREATMENTS AND MEDICATIONS: Your primary care physician may suggest hormone substitution or medications in situations where barrenness is brought about by high or low degrees of specific hormones or issues with the manner in which the body uses hormones.

ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY: This includes getting sperm through ordinary discharge, careful extraction or from donors, depending upon your particular case and wishes. The sperm are then inserted into the female genital tract, or used to act in vitro treatment or intra cytoplasmic sperm infusion.

Managing emotional stress during treatment:

-Practice stress-reduction techniques

-Consider going to counselling

-Express yourself

-Stay in touch with loved ones

PREVENTION:

-Don’t smoke

-Limit or abstain from alcohol

-Steer clear of illicit drugs

-Keep the weight off

-Don’t get a vasectomy

-Avoid things that lead to prolonged heat for the testicles

-Reduce stress

-Avoid exposure to pesticides, heavy metals and other toxins

LIFESTYLE AND HOME REMEDIES:

-Increase frequency of sex

-Have sex when fertilisation is possible

-Avoid the use of lubricants

WHEN TREATMENT DOESN’T WORK:

In uncommon cases, male infertility issues can’t be dealt with, and it’s impossible for a man to father a kid. Your primary care physician may propose that you and your accomplice think about using sperm from a donor or adopting a kid.

Consult the best team of Urologist and gynaecologist surgeons available at The Surgeons House (SHL) in different global locations, please check the link for more details.

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